AMANDA (Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array, terminated in 2009) has used the about 3 km thick ice sheet at the South Pole as both interaction and detection medium for a large high-energy neutrino telescope.
In 1994 a prototype was installed at a depth of about 800–1000 m. At these locations however air bubbles impair the transparency of the ice. Two year later the AMANDA Collaboration installed a new test arrangement at a depth between 1520 and 2000 m. In the meantime scientists from DESY had joined the effort. The new detector consisted of 86 photosensors arranged in 4 strings. Thanks to the better ice quality it was proven for the first time that a telescope for the detection of high-energy neutrinos is realizable at the South Pole. Up to the year 2000 677 optical modules were deployed in 19 boreholes.
The Zeuthen group has provided substantial contributions due to the experiences of many years gained with the Baikal underwater telescope.
Data analysis and publications on the topics: